Two events in the history of the world radically changed the Earth's environment: the Columbian Exchange and the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution, starting in Europe in the late 18th century, further changed humanity by introducing machines and factories to human society. This caused many changes, including urbanization (the growth of cities), pollution, and new economic systems. Urbanization, in particular, altered the human landscape as cities grew faster than at any other time. This is a process that continues to this day.
Climate change can lead to more severe weather, desertification, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. Countries have attempted to deal with climate change by signing treaties, such as the Paris Climate Agreement and turning to more environmentally-friendly sources of energy, such as solar.
The modern world has many environmental challenges. These challenges include the use of pesticides, loss of biodiversity, acidification of the oceans and urban pollution.
Take a look at the following charts, highlighting some of these issues.